Facial nerve injury
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It emerges from the pons of the brainstem , controls the muscles of facial expression , and functions in the conveyance of taste sensations from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. The facial nerve also supplies preganglionic parasympathetic fibers to several head and neck ganglia. The facial and intermediate nerves can be collectively referred to as the nervus intermediofacialis. The motor part of the facial nerve arises from the facial nerve nucleus in the pons , while the sensory and parasympathetic parts of the facial nerve arise from the intermediate nerve.
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Types of facial nerve disorder
Facial Nerve: Anatomy, Function, and Treatment
Facial nerve paralysis is a common problem that involves the paralysis of any structures innervated by the facial nerve. The pathway of the facial nerve is long and relatively convoluted, so there are a number of causes that may result in facial nerve paralysis. Facial nerve paralysis is characterised by facial weakness, usually only in one side of the face, with other symptoms possibly including loss of taste , hyperacusis and decreased salivation and tear secretion. Other signs may be linked to the cause of the paralysis, such as vesicles in the ear, which may occur if the facial palsy is due to shingles. Symptoms may develop over several hours.
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The Anatomy of the Facial Nerve
The hallmark issue of Neurofibromatosis Type 2 NF2 is the bilateral growth of schwannoma bilaterally on cranial nerve 8 CN8 , the nerve in the brain vestibulocochlear nerve. CN8 has two branches of different function the cochlear auditory nerve branch for hearing and the vestibular nerve branch for balance. These tumors are either called acoustic neuroma AN or vestibular schwannoma VS. The growth of a VS does not guarantee damage to the cranial nerve 7 the facial nerve but is a possible risk. CN7 leaves the brainstem close to CN8.
The second most common cause of facial nerve FN palsy is trauma and is most often caused by a temporal bone fracture. Approximately two to three percent of patients who are hospitalized with a traumatic brain injury TBI have an associated FN injury and in cases where there is a temporal bone fracture approximately ten percent of those will have a FN injury. Temporal bone fractures occur by blunt force to the head caused by high velocity motor vehicle accidents, motorcycle accidents, assaults, or falls. The FN is particularly vulnerable in the temporal bone as it traverses three centimeters through various bony segments.
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